Jun 24 2013
Genetically Modified Organisms And Bees
by Maryam Henein |
Monsanto’s expertise lies in genetically modified organisms. Will the honeybee be next? There was quite a stir among beekeepers and anti-GMO activists during the fall of 2012 when chemical and seed giant Monsanto purchased Beeologics, a small company best known for its “groundbreaking research” applying RNAi technology to honeybees, a process that blocks gene expression. This was Monsanto’s first acquisition of a pest control biotech company. What is Monsanto doing to our bees?
Since its inception in 2007, Beeologics has been developing Remebee, an antiviral treatment for use in honeybees affected with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), a bee-specific virus which originated in Australia and was found and named in Israel in 2002.
President and CEO Eyal Ben-Chanoch explained in 2008 that Beeologics was assembling scientists, beekeepers, and business people “to create the missing corporate support” in an industry that traditionally has only been supported by a few hardware manufacturers. Sure, there were hives, tools, bee suits, and the like being offered, but very little had been invested in technology and medicine for the bees — until Beeologics came along, that is.
To put things in context, many scientists were all abuzz about IAPV at the time. Many firmly believed that it was a primer for Colony Collapse Disorder. Remebee, meanwhile, was regarded as a first line of defense to control the virus and its effect on bee mortality.
The Pesticide Problem
While CCD is a complex issue, much of the developing research points to another cause: newfangled chemicals called systemic pesticides. Instead of being applied to leaves, they are enrobed on seeds or entrenched in the soil, allowing for the poison to literally become part of the plant.
Consequently, honeybees bring the systemic pesticides back to the hive in the form of pollen and nectar and store it in their honeycomb. When future generations dip into their reserves, they ingest toxins that target their central nervous system, affect their navigational capabilities and impair their memory. More importantly, the chemicals compromise their immune system – the No. 1 key to fighting any kind of microbial assault on the body, including a virus like IAPV.
Ben-Chanoch didn’t quite agree with our conclusions back then, saying, “While I am also concerned with the world we are going to leave to our children, those who are using so-called facts that are based on pseudo- or incomplete scientific work are as dangerous as the chemical companies who don’t release the data they have.”
New research just released this winter has confirmed that sub-lethal exposure to a particular class of systemic pesticides, neonicotinoids, is directly linked to an increase in Nosema virus in honeybee colonies. Both Nosema and neonicotinoids have been implicated as contributors to CCD, and this latest piece of real, complete science adds another nail to the chemical coffin.
Insect inoculation may be the latest rave, but is it the best solution? Today we know that subsequent research failed to confirm a link between CCD and IAPV. Although IAPV can result in honeybee mortality, the symptoms are not consistent with those of bees dying from CCD.
That said, then, why does Monsanto claim that “the Remebee product line is now proving to be a viable solution to Colony Collapse Disorder” on their website?
Perhaps antiviral remedies will be the next generation of products used to combat agricultural pests and pathogens, but they don’t deal with root issues like native-bee extinctions and unsustainable agriculture (i.e., GMO crops, pesticides, and herbicides). In the end, we will still have a polluted environment.
There may other ramifications as a result of these gene expression manipulations as well.
“Basically, if the bees eat Remebee, there are likely to be unknown effects in gene expression, antiviral abilities, their ability to evolve inherent defenses against viruses, and more,” says Brian Dykstra, the administrator behind “Ethnobeeology,” who holds a B.S. in Environmental Policy and an M.S. in Progress Pollination Biology.
Meanwhile, researchers are discovering the chilling, potentially long-term effects of RNA manipulation. It was once thought changes needed to occur within the DNA to be passed down through generations. It is now clear that changes to micro-RNA can be inherited without any DNA involvement. Recent research has also provided the first example of ingested plant micro-RNA surviving digestion and influencing human cell function.
For its part, however, Monsanto claims, “There is no need for, or value in testing the safety of genetically modified foods in humans.” And Beeologics is confident the acquisition comes at an ideal time and they are in safe hands.
The Motivation for Patented Monsanto Bees
Which brings us back to Monsanto – arguably the most detested chemical company on the planet.
Why were they drawn to Beeologics? Was it because the competition (Syngenta and Bayer Crop Science) had also expressed interest? Or was it because they had identified some low-hanging fruit to add to their portfolio of proprietary life forms? Perhaps Monsanto, which boasts revenue of more than $10.5 billion per year, plans on buying anything and everything to do with gene manipulation.
Considering how the honeybee genome has already been sequenced, how long before we bear witness to a genetically modified bee? If seeds are any indication, Apis melifera may also soon belong to Monsanto. Kill the bees with GMO plants and pesticides, offer a Band-Aid solution by creating a bee that is resistant to all the crap peddled on the market, then “persuade” beekeepers to buy Monsanto bees or else. It’s wicked genius.
But I am sure Monsanto and many others would call all of this paranoid phooey. Take beekeeper and scientist Randy Oliver’s opinion on the subject.
“Honeybees aren’t an organism that anyone who understands anything about their molecular biology would advise as a subject for genetic modification,” he recently told colleagues on the online Bee List. “Do you really think that Monsanto envisions that there would be any substantive return on investment on a patented bee?”
Not 30 years ago we were saying the same thing about patented plants.
According to a Monsanto press release, it will be business as usual. Beeologics will continue to “promote bee health” under its new ownership. And Monsanto will simply use “the base technology from Beeologics as a part of its continuing discovery and development pipeline.” Whatever that means.
To further reassure folks, the press release goes on to describe Monsanto as “a leading global provider of technology-based solutions and agricultural products that improves farm productivity and food quality.” They even state that they are into sustainability.
My jaw dropped. Apparently Monsanto is experiencing delusions about its identity. In the past two decades, Monsanto’s seed monopoly has grown so powerful that they control the genetics of nearly 90 percent of five major commodity crops: corn, soybeans, cotton, canola, and sugar beets! They make gobs of cash and yet sue farmers both in the United States and in struggling international communities.
Between 1997 and 2010, Monsanto admits, the company filed 144 lawsuits against America’s farmers, while settling another 700 out of court for undisclosed amounts. Due to these aggressive lawsuits, Monsanto has created an atmosphere of fear in rural America and driven dozens of farmers into bankruptcy. As one person recently remarked on the Vanishing of the Bees Facebook page, “it’s a shitty business model to create something that can’t be controlled except by suing the hell out of people.”
In India, thousands of farmers have committed suicide — by drinking insecticide no less — because they were promised harvests and income only to have crops fail and debts become untenable, thanks in no small part to their newly planted, genetically modified seeds.
Business as usual, indeed. You be the judge. Is Monsanto really investing in bee health? Or is this another example of man making money off the backs of our bees?
HoneyColony personally vouches for all of the related products associated with this article; all are 100 percent GMO- and Monsanto-free!
Basically a great article! It's big news that there's now a proven instance of micro-RNA's can pass digestive processes intact and then effect phenotype expression. It means that the Monsanto apologist's "no reason" statement is flat-out wrong.
So let's not be jumping over to where we can't think why a certain biotech company would want to buy Beelogics. I can think of both a business strategy reason and a methodologly to get there, and I'm just one bad old college dropout I I imagine Monsanto's board of directors has their nefarious reasons.
dominic - 4 BeeBucks
let them do what they like I say ,they wont stop until they have too,if I was in the U.S ,as a beekeeper I would run and hide with my bees too.The whole industrial nature of beekeeping there is also getting out of hand ,it is my belief that the handeling of these bees with the transport and manipulation does little if nothing for the health and vitality of these creatures,run and hide protest with your feet.rufuse to polinate watch the crops fail ,hit them where it hurts ,minimise bee numbers as far as possible ,go bust if you must. You as the beekeepers hold the power refuse to do the work,so what if you loose your businesses,you will anyway if things dont change today ,which there not .The more we go up against these giants the higher they build there walls ,if we walk away it dosnt mater how high they build there walls they will only trap themselves inside,Please protest reduse your hive numbers and take all your healthy collonies to a safe sanctuary.We cant eat money and it will be bloody hard to pollinate flowers with 20cent pieces.let them do there worse just dont take part!
livewires - 6 BeeBucks
My question is very simple, How can Beeologics, honestly think that by selling the company to Monsanto they will continue the same type of research? You've got to be kidding. Sounds to me like they were made an offer to good to be true.
This is only Oz behind the curtain.
Won't be long before Monsanto convoluting the studies done by Beeologics will confirm that their pesticides have nothing to do with the demise of the bee population.
Buy up your competitors, politicians, enemies and all that can damage your company in any way, and soon you can't be damaged.
Shame on Beeologics!